Oil on canvas
72 x 91 cm
© Antonio Seguí, VEGAP, Málaga, 2020
Figuration, the (meta)language of the avant-garde in Latin America
Parallel to the informalist and abstract artistic movements that flooded the currents of mid-twentieth century international art, a type of art arose in Latin America at the end of the 1950s which was also determined to break with tradition, whilst defending the prevalence of figuration. Based on appropriation and the reinterpretation of avant-garde languages, new languages were created that respond to both their need for experimentation and communication.
In Latin America there was no equivalent to the movements that occurred in the other continents, at least not in terms of content; we can, however, speak about direct influences. Informalism, abstract expressionism, kinetic art, etc.; for Latin American artists all of these represent a reinterpretation of languages and the adaptation of form and content to their social and cultural reality to create a new art. In this room we will see those currents that carried all these influences to the terrain of contemporary figuration.
The selection of works and artists, with different techniques, supports and aesthetic approaches, encompasses movements, such as the Nueva Figuración (New Figuration), and proposals from individual artists alike. They are all related to each other, either by their theme, aesthetic theories, or influences.
We will now look at some of the most interesting currents that fall under the umbrella of contemporary figurative artists, differentiated according to the way they work.
Informalism in Latin America does not conform to the guidelines it follows in North America and Europe either. Although it is true that there are movements in which material experimentation predominates, with gestural and abstract painting in Latin America (such as Arte Madí, concrete-invention art, etc.), the aspect of reinterpreted informalism that emerges on the same continent is striking. This “informalism” (for want of a better term) is also based on the use of colour and marks, but without ever completely losing the reference to the motif. These works focus on the human figure, represented with an existential background that speaks to us of the philosophical concerns of humans.
The great paradigm of this aspect and the alternative to abstract and informalist art is represented by the Nueva Figuración Argentina (New Argentine Figuration). This movement proposes a revaluation of the human figure through the use of expressionist realism and an intense, flat palette. This aesthetic, based on the grotesque, imbalance, and disharmony, aims to reflect the prevailing social and political chaos.
Within this current we find the Argentines Ernesto Deira (1928-1986) and Rómulo Macció (1931-2016), founding members of the now-defunct group La Otra Figuración (The Other Figuration) along with Luis Felipe Noé (1933) and Jorge de la Vega (1930-1971), and representatives of the Nueva Figuración Argentina.
In Ernesto Deira’s works we see an emphasis on imbalance and aggressiveness, with an expressionist use of colour which is nevertheless the result of a very thoughtful composition.
Rómulo Macció produces more amiable works, especially after the end of La Otra Figuración, although in them contrasts of colours, marks and expressionist brushstrokes prevail, leaving the material of the painting more exposed.
Antonio Seguí (Argentina, 1934) and Carlos Alonso (Argentina, 1929), also involved with La Otra Figuración although never officially part of it, do fit within La Nueva Figuración. They both produced figurative and narrative works, with a synthetic realism in which the anecdotal is disregarded to emphasise the subject of their work: representations of human figures with a lot of content focusing on social criticism.
This neo-figuration was also seen outside Argentina, with informalism based on schematisation and the use of marks, and which does not lose the reference to the form. We find two examples of this in work by the Mexican Javier Arévalo and the Uruguayan Hugo Longa.